The Six Fundamental Movements of Major Body Segments

The six fundamental movements of major body segments are flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, rotation, and circumduction. Flexion is decreasing the angle between body segments, an example being a bicep curl whenever the wrist is moving closer to the shoulder. When the wrist is let back down away from the shoulder it is called extension, or an increase in the angle between two body segments.

Abduction is the movement of a body segment away from the midline. Hip abduction is pressing your hips outward and away from the midline of your body. When your legs come back toward centerline it is called adduction, or movement of a body segment toward the midline. Rotation is a circular movement of a body segment about a long axis. Rotation is commonly seen in sports such as tennis, where backhanding a tennis ball requires rotation of the upper arm. Circumduction is a combination of movements outlining a geometric cone such as arm circles.

Some exercise use multiple fundamental movements, kicking a soccer ball is one example of this. When you kick a soccer ball, first your leg hyperextends to “wind up” the kick. Then as it moves forward to generate power, flexion occurs until your leg moves past your centerline and forward into further extension. As your leg extends forward, leg adduction is common considering contact is made using the inside of the foot. The foot during the kick is rotated outward with slight eversion.

Understanding the fundamental movements will help you a better understanding of the body’s kinesthetic movements and how they pertain to exercise. Having a solid understanding of this plus biomechanics will allow you to be more conscious about form and injury preventing and performance enhancing movements.


101 Top Health and Fitness Quotes

“Age is no barrier, it’s a limitation you put on your mind” – Jackie Joyner-Kersee

“Always keep moving, even if you’re just walking.” – Unknown

“Always make a total effort, even when the odds are against you” – Arnold Palmer

“Attitude is everything, so pick a good one.” – Wayne Dyer

“Don’t complain, 80% of people don’t care and 20% of people are happy you have them” – Lou Holtz

“Don’t stop when it hurts, stop when you’re done!” – Anonymous

“Excellence is the gradual result of always trying to do better” – Pat Riley

“Expectations Determine Whether or Not You are a Success of a Failure” – Unknown

“Failure defeats losers, but it inspires winners” – Robert Kiyosaki

“Find passion, embrace fear, and create success on your own terms” – Dulce Candy Ruiz

“How old would you be if you didn’t know how old you are?” – Satchel Paige

“If Not You, Then Who” – Unknown

“If you fail to prepare, you’re prepared to fail” – Mark Splitz

“If you get 1% better at something every day then it is a successful day” – Unknown

“If you want to succeed, you have to commit to it wholeheartedly” – Unknown

“I’m not telling you it’s going to be easy, I’m telling you it’s going to be worth it” -Art Williams

“In any given moment we have 2 options. To step forward into growth, or to step back into safety” – Abraham Maslow

“It’s not whether or not you get knocked down, it’s whether or not you get back up” – Vince Lombardi

“It’s simple, if it jiggles, it’s fat” – Arnold Schwarzenegger

“Limiting the time you’re inactive is even more important than exercise.” – Tom Rath

“Most people never run far enough on their first wind to find out they’ve got a second” – William James

“Motivation is what gets you started, habit is what keeps you going.” – Unknown

“People will choose unhappiness over uncertainty” – Timothy Ferriss

“Persistence can change failure into an extraordinary achievement” – Marv Levy

“Physical fitness is not only one of the most important keys to a healthy body, it is the basis of dynamic and creative intellectual activity.” – John F. Kennedy

“Sometimes you have to dive in head first” – Admiral McRaven

“The best way to predict the future is to create it” – President Abraham Lincoln

“The body is a mirror of how we live our lives.” – Lissa Rankin, MD

“The purpose of training is to tighten up the slack, toughen the body, and polish the spirit.” – Morihei Ueshiba

“The reason I exercise is for the quality of life I enjoy.” – Kenneth H. Cooper

“The resistance that you fight physically in the gym and the resistance that you fight in life can only build a strong character” – Arnold Schwarzenegger

“Thinking and doing are two very different things” – Anonymous

“Training gives us an outlet for suppressed energies created by stress and thus tones the spirit just as exercise conditions the body” – Arnold Schwarzenegger

“Transformation is not five minutes from now; it’s a present activity. In this moment you can make a different choice, and it’s these small choices and successes that build up over time to help cultivate a healthy self-image and self-esteem.” – Jillian Michaels

“Unless you puke, faint, or die, keep going!” – Jillian Michaels

“What makes you something special is not just what you have to gain, but what you feel there is to lose” – Andre Agassi

“You are one decision away from a totally different life” – Unknown

“You can’t put a limit on anything. The more you dream, the further you get.” – Michael Phelps

“You’re never too busy, it’s just a matter of priorities” – Unknown

“1 billion people in the world are chronically hungry. 1 billion people are overweight.” – Mark Bittman

“A fit, healthy body—that is the best fashion statement” – Jess C. Scott

“A goal without a plan is just a wish.” – Larry Elder

“A good plan is like a road map: it shows the final destination and usually the best way to get there.” – H. Stanley Judd

“A man too busy to take care of his health is like a mechanic too busy to take care of his tools.” – Unknown

“A man’s health can be judged by which he takes two at a time, pills or stairs.” – Joan Welsh

“An early-morning walk is a blessing for the whole day.” – Henry David Thoreau

“Appetite has really become an artificial and abnormal thing, having taken the place of true hunger, which alone is natural. The one is a sign of bondage but the other, of freedom.” – Paul Brunton

“Be careful about reading health books. Some fine day you’ll die of a misprint.” – Markus Herz

“Change your thoughts and you change your world.” – Norman Vincent Peale

“Continuous effort — not strength or intelligence — is the key to unlocking our potential.” – Liane Cardes

“Do not let what you cannot do interfere with what you can do.” – John Wooden

“Don’t dig your grave with your own knife and fork.” – English Proverb

“Don’t eat anything your great-great-grandmother wouldn’t recognize as food.” – Michael Pollan

“Don’t say you don’t have enough time. You have exactly the same number of hours per day that were given to Helen Keller, Bill Gates, Michelangelo, Mother Teresa, Leonardo da Vinci, Thomas Jefferson, and Albert Einstein.” – H. Jackson Brown, Jr

“Don’t wait until everything is just right. It will never be perfect. There will always be challenges, obstacles and less than perfect conditions. So what. Get started now. With each step you take, you will grow stronger and stronger, more and more skilled, more and more self-confident and more and more successful.” – Mark Victor Hansen

“Each patient carries his own doctor inside him.” – Norman Cousins

“Early to bed, early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise.” – Benjamin Franklin

“Eat clean, stay fit, and have a burger to stay sane.” – Gigi Hadid

“Every living cell in your body is made from the food you eat. If you consistently eat junk food then you’ll have a junk body.” – Jeanette Jenkins

“For he who has health has hope; and he who has hope, has everything.” – Owen Arthur

“Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” – World Health Organization

“Health is like money, we never have a true idea of its value until we lose it” – Josh Billings

“Health requires healthy food.” – Roger Williams

“Healthy citizens are the greatest asset any country can have.” – Winston S. Churchill

“I always felt that my greatest asset was not my physical ability, it was my mental ability.” – Bruce Jenner

“I hated every minute of the training, but I said, “Don’t quit. Suffer now and live the rest of your life as a champion.” – Muhammad Ali

“I really regret eating healthy today.” – Nobody Ever

“I tried every diet in the book. I tried some that weren’t in the book. I tried eating the book. It tasted better than most of the diets.” – Dolly Parton

“I’ve been on a diet for two weeks and all I’ve lost is fourteen days.” – Totie Fields

“If it weren’t for the fact that the TV set and the refrigerator are so far apart, some of us wouldn’t get any exercise at all.” – Joey Adams

“If we are creating ourselves all the time, then it is never too late to begin creating the bodies we want instead of the ones we mistakenly assume we are stuck with.” – Deepak Chopra

“If you don’t do what’s best for your body, you’re the one who comes up on the short end.” – Julius Erving

“If you don’t like something, change it. If you can’t change it, change your attitude. Don’t complain.” – Maya Angelou

“If you have formed the habit of checking on every new diet that comes along, you will find that, mercifully, they all blur together, leaving you with only one definite piece of information: french-fried potatoes are out.” – Jean Kerr

“If you keep good food in your fridge, you will eat good food.” – Errick McAdams

“If you want to accomplish anything in life, you can’t just sit back and hope it will happen. You’ve got to make it happen.” – Chuck Norris

“If your dog is fat, you’re not getting enough exercise.” – Unknown

“It is better to take many small steps in the right direction than to make a great leap forward only to stumble backward.” – Chinese Proverb

“It is easier to change a man’s religion than to change his diet.” – Margaret Mead

“It’s never too late to start eating well. A good diet can reverse many of those conditions as well. In short: change the way you eat and you can transform your health for the better.” – T. Colin Campbell

“Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food.” – Hippocrates

“Most people fail, not because of lack of desire, but, because of lack of commitment.” – Vince Lombardi

“Move out of your comfort zone. You can only grow if you are willing to feel awkward and uncomfortable when you try something new.” – Brian Tracy

“My grandmother started walking five miles a day when she was sixty. She’s ninety-seven now, and we don’t know where the heck she is.” – Ellen DeGeneres

“Never let the fear of striking out get in your way.” – George Herman “Babe” Ruth

“Pain is inevitable. Suffering is optional.” – Haruki Murakami

“People often say that motivation doesn’t last. Well, neither does bathing – that’s why we recommend it daily.” – Zig Ziglar

“Some things you have to do every day. Eating seven apples on Saturday night instead of one a day just isn’t going to get the job done.” – Jim Rohn

“Success is a staircase, not a doorway.” – Dottie Walters

“Take care of your body. It’s the only place you have to live.” – Jim Rohn

“The best diet is the one you don’t know you’re on.” – Brian Wansink

“The difference between the impossible and the possible lies in a person’s determination.”- Tommy Lasorda

“The future is always beginning now.” – Mark Strand

“The greatest revolution of our generation is the discovery that human beings, by changing the inner attitudes of their minds, can change the outer aspects of their lives.” – William James

“The next best thing to winning is losing! At least you’ve been in the race.” – Nellie Hershey Tullis

“There may be people that have more talent than you, but there’s no excuse for anyone to work harder than you do.” – Derek Jeter

“Those who think they have not time for bodily exercise will sooner or later have to find time for illness.” – Edward Stanley

“We do not stop exercising because we grow old – we grow old because we stop exercising.” – Dr. Kenneth Cooper

“Whenever I see an ambulance, I like to think there is a baby being born, rather than a death” – Phil Lester

“You have to expect things of yourself before you can do them” – Michael Jordan

“You must have long-range goals to keep you from being frustrated by short-range failures” – Charles C. Noble

Quote of the Week – 26 June

“The Body is a mirror of how we live our lives” – Lissa Rankin, MD

When you look in the mirror what do you see? Your reflection not only shows you your physical appearance, but is a reflection of your work, hobbies, family, discipline, mind, and faith. Your health and fitness are a direct representation of you. If you choose to binge your favorite shows on Netflix every day after coming home from a desk job, your body will reflect that. If you choose to workout every day before work, your body will reflect that as well. Your body is not a separate entity from the rest of your life. It is important to connect the body and mind so that when you look in the mirror it shows the outcome of your thoughts and goals.

Quote of the Week – 8 May

“If you fail to prepare, you’re prepared to fail” – Mark Splitz

Preparation is the key to success. If you have a goal, you need to prepare a plan to achieve it. If you don’t have a plan before you begin a workout plan or a diet, then you are not setting yourself up for success. Your preparations need to be both long term and short term. Long term, prepare to set aside as much time as you need over the coming months or years to achieve your goal. Mentally prepare for the time it will take. Short-term preparation can be anything from making sure you get a healthy meal before a workout to layout out your clothes the night before. Always take the time to prepare, or you will be prepared to fail your goals.

Fitness on a Budget

I remember when I was growing up it was always difficult to convince my parents to buy me new things. They were incredibly disciplined in what they invested their money in, and if it was something they didn’t see as “valuable” or “worth the money”, it was an almost certain “no”. Dreams of buying 30 dollar dumbbells, a treadmill, or even some gym memberships were never going to be reached. If it wasn’t for the local YMCA offering a 12 dollar monthly membership, I do not know if I would have ever been part of a gym! Now I don’t want to throw my parents under the bus, they gave me everything that I wanted that I truly needed, but the point is there millions of people who struggle financially and still want to get healthy. I am now a college student, and I know what it feels like to live off of 100 dollars for a month; I see it with my friends and in myself every day! Breaking the bank isn’t an option for me or for many of us, and that is a sad but true reality. However, this reality does not inhibit our ability to live a healthy lifestyle. In fact, we can still get in tremendous shape and look amazing with the use of extremely cheap equipment. In particular, the following presents my five favorite exercise modalities, all which can be found at sporting good stores or online for under $20!

Your Own Body

As cliché as it is to use in this article, do not underestimate the power of bodyweight exercise in shaping an amazing physique! There are several successful exercise programs that use only your own body to change and get dramatic results. I personally prefer to use bodyweight exercises as opposed to weighted exercise just because of the lean and clean cut look it elicits. Whether it be push-ups, dips, squats, lunges, running, or jumping, there are hundreds of exercises out there that are incredibly effective, and they are completely free. Here is a sample body weight workout that will challenge you for free!

Exercise Bingo: Create a slip of paper for each of the spaces (i.e B1, N2, etc.), and put them in a hat. Pull out a slip of a paper, and conduct the exercise on that respective space for 1 minute. After the exercise is completed, pull out another slip. If you pull a free space, rest for one minute and drink water. The goal is to get two bingos on the same card.

1 Wide Push Ups Jumping Jacks Mountain Climbers Sit Ups Squats
2 Military Push Ups Burpees Free (1 minute break) Jump Squats Calf Raises
3 Plank High Knees Lunges Hip Bridges Arm Circles
4 Free (1 minute break) Butt Kickers 360 degree jumps Superman’s Free (1 minute break)

Speed Rope

A speed rope is very cheap item that will bring a hell of a lot of intd0c73dd1-e269-4b28-a360-57a2d7074ccf_1-89a1581b98b87ba35a057d771ef1ece7ensity into your workout. I would like to make the distinction between a jump rope and a speed rope, one is used for recreation and the other exercise. Don’t get discouraged, jumping rope is difficult at first, especially at high speeds. However, after practicing it for a few workouts you should pick it up quickly. You can find this modality for as cheap as $2.97 at your local Walmart. Check out this sample speed rope workout below!

15 Minute Speed Rope Circuit

Regular Jump (1:00) High-Speed High Knees Jump (1:00) Regular Jump (1:00)
High-Speed Jump (1:00) Regular Jump (1:00) Double Jumps (1:00)
Regular Jump (1:00) Single Leg Jump Rope (1:00) left Regular Jump (1:00)
High-Speed Side-to-Side Jump (1:00) Regular Jump (1:00) Scissor Jumps (1:00)
Regular Jump (1:00)(left) Single Leg Jump (1:00) right Regular Jumps (1:00)
  • Regular Jump– Normal jump rope at a regular pace.
  • High-Speed Jump– Jump as fast as you possibly can.
  • High-Speed Side-to-Side Jumps– Jump side to side with both feet as fast as possible while jumping over the rope.
  • High-Speed High Knees– Perform high knees while jumping over the rope.
  • Single Leg Jump Rope– Jump over the rope with only one leg, while the other is lifted off the ground.
  • Double Jumps– Jump high enough where you can perform two full revolutions of the jump rope before touching the ground.
  • Scissor Jumps– Put one foot in front of the other, jump, and then switch feet. Continue this process.

Medicine Ball

A medicine ball is yet another relatively cheap item that provides a lot of versatility when it comes to the amount of exercises you can perform with it. These can be found for anywhere between fifteen and thirty dollars. With its versatility nearly unmatched, here is three of the hundreds of moves you can perform with a medicine ball.

Medicine Ball Push-Ups are my personal favorite. The move is simply performing a push-up, but now there is a medicine ball under one of your hands. Medicine Ball Push-Ups have tons of versatility in their own right, and can also be performed with several balls, each placed on a different limb. It adds a balance and core component to boring old push-ups, and thus intensifies the move.  

Jump Squats are another already difficult move that Medicine Balls can intensify to push your body even further. This move is when you perform a normal squat, bending your knees to 90 degrees, and once you reach this point, explode straight up and jump in the air. Do all of this while holding the medicine ball in your hand.

Medicine Ball Burpees are another extremely challenging move that I love to use in both my workouts and the workouts of my clients. Start standing straight up, and then kneeling down and touching the medicine ball to the floor. Once the medicine ball reaches the floor, jump your legs back into Push Up position, and perform a Push Up with both hands on the medicine ball. Once the Push Up is completed, jump your feet back up to the ball, and stand up.

Agility Ladder

The Agility Ladder is my favorite thing that I mention in this entire article! It allows for workouts that challenge the coordination of the neuromuscular system, have high intense cardio components, and just provide for a fun and unique workout experience. All these benefits are only coupled when you realize it only costs eleven dollars at Walmart! Check out this Video with 30 speed ladder movements to see what it is all about!

Resistance Bands

Resistance Bands are the perfect replacement for weights for anyone that is on a tight budget. Not only do they serve the same practical purpose as dumbbells, but the difference in cost is absolutely astounding. While a pair of thirty-pound dumbells will cost around $40, the resistance bands will cost only $10! There are plenty of videos on YouTube that will take you through resistance band workouts from start to finish. 

All of this exercise equipment is a staple for the workouts I use for both my clients and myself. Not only are they all incredibly cheap and a perfect way to ensure proper intensity for your workouts, but they are extremely fun and challenging ways to workout. I promise that even if I had a billion dollar budget, these are exactly the things I would use to change my client’s lives!

This article was written by Alex Perelló.